Encapsulation in Java is a mechanism of wrapping the data (variables) and code acting on the data (methods) together as a single unit. In encapsulation the variables of a class will be hidden from other classes, and can be accessed only through the methods of their current class, therefoe it is also known as data hiding.
To achieve encapsulation in Java
- Declare the variable of a class as private
- Provide public setter and getter methods to modify and view the variables values.
Encapsulation is used to reduce dependencies, so if you want to change something you can change it and it won't affect other classes because it was encapsulated and it only affects that class.